Hyperpigmentation: Causes, Types & Treatment
Hyperpigmentation results in making dark patches on your whole face and neck area, leaving some part of your skin darker than the rest of your skin. They are basically caused by the extra deposition of color pigment found in your body called melanin.
When melanocytes (pigment-producing cells) get damaged, they even cause more production of melanin which further assembles together.
This collection of melanin causes your body to form dark patches on your skin which is called hyperpigmentation. It can be formed at any age and on any skin type.
Causes of Hyperpigmentation
There are some causes of hyperpigmentation such as:
- Skin inflammation
- Sun rays
- Melasma (dark tone)
- Age spots
- Some drug types
Types of Hyperpigmentation
There are some different kinds of hyperpigmentation such as:
- One of the forms of hyperpigmentation is post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), which results from acne, any skin injury, or injury resulted from surgical treatments like laser therapy, chemical peels, and dermaabrasion because of an increase in melanin quantity in the body. The patches can take any color like red, brown, black or even pink.
- Other forms include solar lentigines, also known as age spots and melisma. They occur as a result of skin exposure. Exposure to the skin causes harmful UVB and UVA rays to activate melanocytes cells to form excessive melanin as a defense mechanism, which further creates dark patches on your skin.
The methods involved for pigmentation treatment are:
Best Cream for pigmentation
The most favorable treatment for hyperpigmentation is topical creams for normal cases. Skin conditions take time to get healed, so be patient with the use of creams and ointments for almost a few weeks or even months.
Hydroquinone works as a skin lightening product and helps in the reduction of melanin quantity in your skin.
2. Azelaic Acid pigmentation cream
Azelaic acid works as an exfoliant agent and fights well with the discoloration of the skin. It is highly effective for the skin inflammation caused by acne and also for hyperpigmentation.
3. Kojic Acid for pigmentation on the face
Kojic acid is basically derived from a fungus and works as a natural lightening agent for your skin. It works by inhibiting the growth of an amino acid called tyrosine, which acts as a helper for melanin formation.
4. Retinoids for pigmentation skin
Retinoids are an umbrella term for all the derivatives of vitamin A. Tretinion and retinol are the common types of retinoids. These derivatives can do wonders for your skincare, and they have been used as an ingredient in various creams as they work great as anti-ageing and skin lightening.
5. Vitamin C as pigmentation removal cream
Vitamin c, known as ascorbic acid, is known as a popular remedy used for hyperpigmentation caused by sun exposure. Being antioxidant in nature, it works by ceasing the tyrosinase enzyme working, which causes melanin production.
6. Niacinamide for skin pigmentation treatment
Niacinamide, which is a derivative of the B3 vitamin, help a lot in treating hyperpigmentation and also in collagen production.
A certified dermatologist with the necessary equipment can perform skin procedures. Some procedures are listed below:
- Intense pulse light (IPL), also known as photo facials, is one of the skin procedures which can only be done by a dermatologist.
- The strong flashes of light are made to penetrate into the skin in order to disintegrate the melanin in the skin. The remaining residues of melanin rise up to the skin surface.
Chemical peels contain chemicals like lactic acid and glycolic acid, which works to peel off the external and top layers of the skin, hence results in the chemical burning of the skin. This peeling of the dark and dull patches enables the skin to push up the new skin cells.
Laser therapies are widely used as a treatment for hyperpigmentation in severe and deeper cases. It works to remove the epidermal layer of the skin by targeting the light rays at the specific area of the skin (dark circles). You can seek laser therapy upon the advice of your doctor.
Home Remedies for hyperpigmentation of the skin
Natural and home remedies are not much recommended for the cases like hyperpigmentation, but there is no harm in giving them a try for once. Some of them are:
· Aloe Vera for skin
Aloe vera gel contains aloin in it which improves the discoloration of the skin. You can apply raw aloe vera gel on your face overnight. Wash your face in the morning. You can repeat it till you find visible results.
Licorice extract contains glabridin, which is a strong compound and has been found to lighten your skin. Try it to get the best results.
· Green Tea for hyperpigmentation
Green tea has been found to be added to a variety of skin care products because it contains polyphenols which work for the inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity. You can try any green tea containing topical cream.